Implementation of Enhanced Recovery in Gynecologic Surgery to Improve Outcomes at an Urban Safety-Net Hospital

Mary Louise Fowler, Lizette Mendez, Shawn Whitehead, Bhavesh Shah, Kristen E. Rizza, Melissa Schapero, Elise P. Memmo, Paul M. Hendessi, Ronald E. Iverson, Mallika Anand

Abstract


Background: This study aims to implement an enhanced recovery pathway (ERP) for patients undergoing gynecologic surgery and to track clinical outcomes, including perioperative opioid use and adverse events.

Methods: Patients undergoing gynecologic surgery with a planned overnight stay were eligible. The primary outcome measure was perioperative opioid use in oral morphine milligram equivalents. Secondary outcome measures included bundle completion and length of stay. Balancing measures included rates of total and specific adverse events. Data were stratified by route of surgery and univariate analyses were performed between pre- and post-ERP groups to compare demographic factors and outcome measures. Linear regression analyses were run to assess mean differences in perioperative opioid use and length of stay when adjusting for route of surgery, age, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, surgical subspecialty, and postoperative hemoglobin change, and/or bundle completion score.

Results: The ERP was implemented in 16 weeks and selected in 63 eligible patients from February 1 to April 30, 2017. ERP bundle completion was significantly higher for all surgical categories following formal pathway implementation. Compared to the pre-ERP cohort, the ERP cohort demonstrated significantly decreased total opioid use in laparotomies (175.5 mg vs. 209.8 mg, P = 0.03) and minimally invasive surgeries (125 mg vs. 170.3 mg, P = 0.018). Additionally, significantly decreased intraoperative opioids were used in both laparotomies (95 mg vs. 105 mg, P = 0.03) and minimally invasive surgeries (75 mg vs. 108.5 mg, P < 0.0001), as well as significantly decreased postoperative opioid use in minimally invasive surgeries (15 mg vs. 45 mg, P = 0.04). A one-point increase in ERP bundle completion score was associated with a 9.2 mg decrease in total opioid used (P = 0.0375) as well as a 4.8 h decrease in length of stay (P < 0.0001) when adjusting for route of surgery, age, BMI, ASA status, surgical subspecialty, and case length. There were no significant differences in adverse events when ERP was used.

Conclusions: ERP implementation was rapidly accomplished at our urban, safety-net hospital. The pathway reduced perioperative opioid use without increasing adverse events. Continued monitoring of enhanced recovery quality improvement measures, including bundle completion, is essential to ensure adherence, safety, and effectiveness.




J Clin Gynecol Obstet. 2020;9(3):43-52
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jcgo666

Keywords


Enhanced recovery pathway; Gynecologic surgery; Opioid reduction

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Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics, quarterly, ISSN 1927-1271 (print), 1927-128X (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
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